In a medium bowl, mix together flour,sugar, baking powder, baking soda and salt.
Pour buttermilk into a small bowl. Add the egg, melted butter and vanilla extract and whisk well until thoroughly combined.
Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients and mix until just combined, being sure to not over mix. The batter should have small lumps.
Heat up a large fry pan over medium heat and brush with melted butter. Scoop the batter, using a 1/4 cup measure (or tablespoon measure), onto the warm pan. Place a few blueberries one at a time on the pancake and cook for 1 to 2 minutes, until small bubbles form on the surface of the pancake, and then flip. Turn heat down to medium-low and cook on opposite side for about 1 minute, or until golden brown.
Transfer cooked pancakes to a baking sheet and place in a warm oven or cover with foil. Proceed with the rest of the batter until you’re done. To make the blueberry syrup, gently simmer ingredients over a low heat for about 5 minutes, stirring occasionally.
Serve pancakes with warm blueberry syrup.